Getting beaten by your mother or family members isn’t a pleasant experience for any child. Especially when babies are dependent on them for their survival.
Humans punish their kids to teach them the difference between right and wrong. But why do adult monkeys bite, drag, or, in rare cases, even kill their babies?
Are they also disciplining their babies like humans?
Several behavioral biologists have conducted extensive observational studies on this harsh behavior of adult monkeys towards their innocents, young babies.
A handful of researchers have provided some insights into the potential causes behind why monkeys bite or abuse their babies.
Scientific Reasons Why Do Monkey Bite Or Abuse Their Babies:
Not all but a few monkey species like rhesus macaques, pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina), wild-born Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata), and sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys) more frequently bite or abuse their babies.
During the first few months of babies’ life, mothers abuse their newborns by dragging, throwings, sitting, stepping on, biting, or slapping them.
A wealth of longitudinal and observational data have proposed the following main rationales behind why monkeys bite their babies:
- To Discipline or Encourage Baby’s Independence
- Maternal Protectiveness
- Social Deprivation or Captivity
- Genetic relatedness or proximity to abusive parents
- Environmental stress
Usually, monkey mothers bite their babies affectionately. The biting doesn’t severely hurt the baby. It is just mother-dotings and lovely teasing.
Similar to human mothers, female monkeys also play with their young. This biting isn’t a depiction of mother aggression but playfulness. In return to mothers’ bites, the babies also bite their mothers.
To Discipline Or Encourage Their Independence:
According to Italian behavioral biologist Dario Maestripieri from Emory University and Kelly A. Carroll from Berry College, Georgia, mother monkeys frequently bite or slap their youngs to discipline their naughty behavior.
Mothers also sometimes bite their youngs to encourage their independence. Baby monkeys only live with their mother for a certain amount of time. Later, they move away from their mother’s care to explore the surrounding on their own.
“Monkey mothers sometimes bite or slap their infants”, stated Dario Maestripieri, “to discipline their behavior or encourage their independence”.
Baby monkeys live with their mothers for one year to 18 months. Similar to humans, young monkeys are forced to live independently and discover their destiny.
Social Deprivation Or Captivity:
Whereas occasional bites or slaps are a form of light punishment, – dragging the babies by their tails, throwing or pushing them at a short distance or ground, and other harsh behaviors such as stepping or sitting on the innocent young babies is not at all considered as mere punishment. This is sheer aggression vented by abusive mothers on the young.
According to a 1978 research study led by Gerald C. Ruppenthal and his colleagues, Stephen J. Suomi, Mary L. Collins, and Harry F. Harlow, baby monkeys who are raised in isolation or captivity from the very moment of their birth are more likely to become aggressive mothers.
The research study was published in a renowned scientific journal, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Volume 85, Issue 4.
“When baby monkeys are separated from their mothers at birth and reared under social deprivation conditions (caged)”, stated Dr. Gerald C. Ruppenthal,
they’re more likely to become hyper-aggressive during their adulthood; especially females who may become hyper-aggressive, abusive mothers later in their lives”.
Gerald C. Ruppenthal and his colleagues concluded that female monkeys raised without having any mother figure around were more likely to become abusive mothers. Motherless mothers bite or abuse their young as they had no prior experience of how to handle their newborns.
Japanese anthropologist Dr. Koichi Negayama from Osaka University further explained in her 1981 research paper that when mother monkeys are kept alone in captivity, they abuse their babies even if they weren’t separated from their mothers when young.
Captivity creates a stressful environment where mothers become more prone to exhibit aggressive behavior towards their babies. When there’s nothing around them to vent their stress, they release their frustration by biting their babies.
Monkey mothers mostly roughly groom or bite their newborn babies as a form of maternal protectiveness.
According to Dr. Troisi and D’Amato from the University of Rome, females’ abusive behavior is linked with maternal protectiveness. They bite, drag, or slap the youngs to punish them when the baby monkeys try to break contact with them.
Abuse associated with maternal protectiveness is not as harsh, grave as to result in a baby’s death. Troisi and D’Amato believed that the frequent bitting, dragging, or slapping by monkey mothers is nothing but a result of separation anxiety and maternal possessiveness.
Monkey mothers are emotionally attached to their tiny, cute babies. Therefore, turn anxiously violent towards infants when they try to break contact with them.
Genetic Relatedness With Abusive Individuals:
Being a social animal, monkeys learn what they see.
According to a 1997 study led by Italian behavioral biologist Dario Maestripieri from the Emory University and his colleagues from the Yerkes Regional Primate Research Center, USA that infant abuse runs in families. If a female monkey was abused as an infant, she would also become an abusive mother herself.
The researchers postulated that maternal abuse in monkeys passes down from generation to generation. Similar to humans, an abused individual is more likely to become an abusive person himself.
During the research, Dario Maestripieri noticed those monkey mothers who frequently bit or abused their babies were closely related females. They were either sisters or mother and daughters.
The primary reason why monkeys harshly bite or abuse their babies is hereditary relatedness to another abusive individual. Monkey mothers adopt the same parenting style which they had observed or directly learned from their mothers.
As humans punish their children for doing something wrong, monkey mothers also bite or slap their youngs to discipline them.
Socially deprived or stressed mothers may tend to be more abusive than simply biting or slapping. But it’s a rare occurrence.
Most of the monkey species adore their young and provide them all the care and love they need as babies.